Document › Details
Scripps Research Institute, The. (4/28/10). "Press Release: Scripps Research Team Provides Groundbreaking New Understanding of Stem Cells. The Surprising Biochemical Findings May Improve Scientists’ Ability to Manipulate Cell Fate and Promote Healing". L
|Region||La Jolla, CA|
|Country||United States (USA)|
|Organisation||Scripps Center for Mass Spectrometry|
|Group||Scripps Research Institute, The (TSRI)|
|Organisation 2||Scripps Research Institute, The (TSRI)|
|Product||stem cell research|
|Product 2||LC/MS (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry)|
|Person||Ding, Sheng (Sripps Research 201004 Research Associate Professor)|
|Person 2||Siuzdak, Gary (Scripps Research 201004 Senior Director Center for Mass Spectrometry)|
In findings that could one day lead to new therapies, researchers from The Scripps Research Institute have described some striking differences between the biochemistry of stem cells versus mature cells.
The study, led by Scripps Research Associate Professor Sheng Ding and Senior Director of the Scripps Research Center for Mass Spectrometry Gary Siuzdak, was published in an advance, online edition of the prestigious journal Nature Chemical Biology on May 2, 2010.
In the research, the team used a unique approach to better understand stem cells, which have the ability to change or "differentiate" into adult cell types (such as hair cells, skin cells, nerve cells). Understanding how stem cells mature opens the door for scientists and physicians to manipulate the process to meet the needs of patients, potentially treating such intractable conditions as Parkinson's disease and spinal injury.
"In the past, scientists trying to understand stem cell biology focused on genes and proteins," said Ding. "In our study, we looked at stem cell regulation in a different way-on the biochemical level, on a functional level. With metabolomics profiling, we were able to look at naturally occurring small molecules and how they control cell fate on a completely different level."
The new paper describes parts of the stem cell "metabolome"- the complete set of substances ("metabolites") formed in metabolism, including all naturally occurring small molecules, biofluids, and tissues. The scientists then compared this profile to those of more mature cells, specifically of nerve cells and heart cells.
When the results were tallied, the scientists had found about 60 previously unidentified metabolites associated with the progression of stem cells to mature cells, as well as an unexpected pattern in the chemistry that mirrored the cells' increasing biological maturity.
Ripe for Discovery
The study of metabolomics is relatively new, having emerged only over the past decade or so.
"One of the most interesting aspects of metabolomics is how little we know," commented Siuzdak. "We don't know what the vast majority of metabolites are, or what they do. It is an area ripe for discovery."
Research in metabolomics is made possible by a variety of special techniques and equipment. In the current study, the team used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS), which draws on two more traditional techniques to provide scientists with the ability to chemically analyze virtually any molecular species. The group then analyzed the resulting data using an open-access bioinformatics platform XCMS, a now-popular technique developed by Siuzdak and colleagues described in a 2006 article in the journal Analytical Chemistry. The XCMS software allows researchers to identify and assess metabolite and peptide features that show significant change between sample groups-in this case mouse stem cells versus mature cells.
The most difficult part of untargeted metabolomics studies is analyzing the results and characterizing metabolites, according to Research Associate Oscar Yanes of the Siuzdak lab, the new paper's first author.
Nevertheless, Yanes shifted though the data on stem cells and identified an unexpected pattern: stem cell metabolites had highly unsaturated structures compared with mature cells, and levels of highly unsaturated molecules decreased as the stem cells matured. Highly unsaturated molecules, which contain little hydrogen, can easily react and change into many other different types of molecules.
"The study reveals an astounding cellular strategy," commented Yanes. "The capacity of embryonic stem cells to generate a whole spectrum of cell types characteristic of different tissues (a phenomenon referred to as plasticity) is mirrored at the metabolic level."
"We were not expecting these results," said Siuzdak, "although in retrospect it makes sense that stem cells (which can form almost any cell) have metabolites that are chemically flexible."
Confirming their observations, the researchers found that by chemically blocking the usual route to saturation-oxidation-they were able to prevent stem cells' normal progress into mature heart and nerve cells. Conversely, when specific oxidized metabolites were introduced into the culture, stem cell differentiation was promoted.
Ding notes the study also provides a new perspective on fatty acids similar to those found in fish oil and other nutriceuticals.
"In the past, people focused on the fact that fatty acids were important to create cell membranes, the scaffolding of our cells," said Ding. "But in our study, we show that different fatty acids don't just play a role in constituting cell membranes, but also have functions in directing cell fate."
In addition to Siuzdak, Ding, and Yanes, authors of the paper, "Metabolic oxidation regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation," are Julie Clark, Diana M Wong, Gary J Patti, Antonio Sanchez-Ruiz, H Paul Benton, Sunia A Trauger, and Caroline Desponts, all of Scripps Research.
This study was supported by grants from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, National Cancer Institute, and the National Institutes of Health, as well as a postdoctoral fellowship from Fundación Ramón Areces.
About The Scripps Research Institute
The Scripps Research Institute is one of the world's largest independent, non-profit biomedical research organizations, at the forefront of basic biomedical science that seeks to comprehend the most fundamental processes of life. Scripps Research is internationally recognized for its discoveries in immunology, molecular and cellular biology, chemistry, neurosciences, autoimmune, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases, and synthetic vaccine development. Established in its current configuration in 1961, it employs approximately 3,000 scientists, postdoctoral fellows, scientific and other technicians, doctoral degree graduate students, and administrative and technical support personnel. Scripps Research is headquartered in La Jolla, California. It also includes Scripps Florida, whose researchers focus on basic biomedical science, drug discovery, and technology development. Scripps Florida is located in Jupiter, Florida.
10550 North Torrey Pines Road
La Jolla, California 92037
Record changed: 2016-03-19
More documents for Scripps Research Institute, The (TSRI)
-  Bruker Corporation. (6/6/16). "Press Release: Bruker Introduces MetaboBASE Personal Library at ASMS 2016". San Antonio, TX....
-  Agilent Technologies Inc.. (12/9/13). "Press Release: Agilent Technologies to Sponsor Life Science Workshops in San Diego, San Franscisco Bayer Area on Dec. 11 and 12. Top Researchers to Present Integrated Approaches to Disease Research, Drug Development...
-  Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. (7/18/13). "Press Release: Sigma-Aldrich and The Scripps Research Institute Partner to Accelerate the Commercialization of Research Reagents". Saint Louis, MO & La Jolla, CA....
-  Bradley, David (Chemistry World). (3/8/13). "News: The Next Big Thing in Mass Spectrometry"....
-  ChromaDex Corporation. (5/31/12). "Press Release: ChromaDex and Scripps Research Institute Collaborate on METLIN Metabolite Database". Irvine, CA....
-  Sage-N Research, Inc.. (4/26/11). "Press Release: Sage-N Research Releases New Developer Toolkit that Facilitates Integration of Sorcerer Platform with Independent Software Suites". Milpitas, CA....
-  Scripps Research Institute (Mika Ono). (5/24/10). "Press Release: Scientists Find Chemical Signal from Predators that Sparks Fear in Mice"....
-  Sage-N Research, Inc.. (2/8/10). "Press Release: Sage-N Research Defines New SEQUEST 3G as the Standard for Translational Proteomics Search Engines". Milpitas, CA....
To subscribe to our free, monthly mass spectrometry newsletter, please send an e-mail to email@example.com and simply fill the subject line with the word »MSC newsletter«
To get even more information, please take a look at our [gs] professional services offering and read the gene-sensor Product Flyer [PDF file]